By Thomas Biolsi
This significant other is created from 27 unique contributions via top students within the box and summarizes the country of anthropological wisdom of Indian peoples, in addition to the background that bought us up to now.
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Extra info for A Companion to the Anthropology of American Indians
Salmon are anadramous; they are born in fresh water, migrate downstream to the sea where they grow to adulthood, and then return to their natal freshwater stream to spawn – to lay and fertilize their eggs. Pacific salmon, unlike Atlantic salmon, die upon spawning. The return trips are called ‘‘runs’’ and salmon ran up the Northwest’s rivers in millions. , Drucker and Heizer, 1967). One crucial trend since the 1960s has been the increasing recognition that there is no ‘‘typical’’ Northwest Coast environment; there is not a single ‘‘environment’’ but a complex web of habitats or patches which are the result of the interplay among what we might label the ‘‘environment’’ and human social and economic organization.
Beyond documenting the history of root harvesting and processing, investigators have become increasingly interested in the environmental effects of root collecting, particularly techniques deliberately used to increase productivity, or which had that effect. Marshall lists three in reference to roots: (1) digging and turning the soil (the plants he discussed thrive under ‘‘disturbed’’ conditions); (2) replanting roots or corms and reseeding (according to Marshall , roots were replanted when they were too small, of the wrong ‘‘sex,’’ or blemished, among other reasons; some root plants were collected only when their seed was mature and ripe, and the seeds scattered across the meadow); and (3) deliberate burning of meadows.
M. ’’ Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82(3): 369–387. Deur, D. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University. Dobyns, H. F. 1983: Their Number Become Thinned: Native American Population Dynamics in Eastern North America. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Donald, L. and D. H. ’’ Ethnology 14(3): 325–346. ’’ In Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, ed. J. E. S. Burch and L. J. Ellanna, pp. 65–95. Oxford: Berg. Drucker, P. 1951: The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes. Bulletin of American Ethnology no.