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By National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable

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By 1955 they had considerably increased their instructional spending (and expanded their faculties). Private universities generally suffered from the diminished purchasing power of their endowment income and from a dearth of capital for improvements and additions. Voluntary support, on which they depended for capital, did not surpass the peak levels of 1928–1931 until after 1955. Improvements in research capacity prior to 1955 were made from exceedingly low levels, except perhaps at the most favored centers of research.

Karlesky, The State of Academic Science, Volumes I and II, New York: Change Magazine Press, 1977–78. 20. R. M. Rosenzweig, with B. Turlington, The Research Universities and Their Patrons, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. 21. Ibid; Research Universities and the National Interest: A Report of Fifteen University Presidents. ; American Society for Engineering Education, The Quality of Engineering Education. , 1986; D. , 1986; B. L. : Brookings Institution, 1985. About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files.

11 Industry's influence has also been great in the realm of education. Following a 1954 initiative from the Ministry of Education, the Nikkeiren (Japanese Federation of Economic Organizations) issued a formal report in 1956 which criticized the law-liberal arts biases in the selection of university students and demanded more emphasis on science and engineering. In 1961, the cabinet of Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda acted on this recommendation by increasing dramatically the number of university places reserved for students in science and engineering.

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