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By Garcia J.L.L., de Castro M.D.L.

This e-book goals to supply scientists with information regarding a chain of concepts that may be used so as to facilitating the transformation of the pattern to a suitable country for next detection or quantitation of its parts of curiosity. The suggestions handled diversity from the extremely simple ones (e.g. freeze-drying) to different extra complicated ones (e.g. glow discharge and laser-induced breakdown sampling).

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N. Maini, J. Immunol. , 82 (1985) 155. 16 M. Kawashige, T. Sendo, K. Otsubo, T. Aoyama and R. Oishi, Biol. Pharm. , 18 (1995) 1793. 17 K. Nielsen, J hnmunoassay, 16 (I 995) 183. D. Roland and E. Berry, Tech. Bull. Regist. Med. , 38 (1968) 304. S. P. J. Kricka, Anal. Chem. Symp. , 6 (1981) 109. 20 H. Wieland and D. Seidel, Clin. , 28 (I 982) 1335. 21 J. Brunzel, A. Sniderman, J. Albers and P. , B. Apoproteins, Atherosclerosis, 4 (1989) 79. O. S. Kazlehurst, L. H. Hannon, Clin. , 21 (1988) 219. 23 F.

With both methods, the results for the control serum cannot be distinguished from those of fresh whole serum. The ability to prepare freezedried human serum containing stepped levels of apolipoproteins A~ and B for use as reference material is of great interest on account of the prominent roles of these substances as indicators of heart disease risk [20,21]. One way of increasing the thermal and longterm stability of these lipoproteins is by adding ethyl alcohol and acetic/acetate buffer to precipitate fractions enriched with them that will withstand both the passage of time (up to 3 years) and high temperatures (up to 56~ [22].

One effective method for extracting drugs from urine uses freeze-drying and a subsequent liquid-liquid extraction. Urine samples are supplied with acetic acid and freezedried, the resulting residue being extracted and analysed by thin layer chromatography. This method provides much higher recoveries than standard extraction procedures for all types of compounds [52]. 38 Analvtical freeze-d~ing Freeze-drying in combination with resin infiltration and UV light-induced polymerization at a low temperature under vacuum is an effective alternative to the preparation of tissues for microprobe analysis.

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