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By Lennart Heimer; et al

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Additional resources for Anatomy of neuropsychiatry : the new anatomy of the basal forebrain and its implications for neuropsychiatric illness

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In this process of discovery, the accumbens has lost its status as an independent functional-anatomical unit, not to mention its standing as a nucleus. The notion of accumbens as a critical “limbic-motor” or “emotional-motor” interface, furthermore, has become equally dubious. Not only ventral striatopallidum, but also septum, amygdala, preoptic region, hypothalamus, and some cortical regions in the limbic lobe (Chapter 4)—practically all major forebrain regions—are involved in emotional, motivational, and motor activating functions because all have more or less direct relationships with motor effector structures in the brainstem.

Many of these limbic components comprise countless varicose, unmyelinated fibers that are enriched in neuropeptides, which, according to Nieuwenhuys, signifies nonsynaptic secretion of neuromediators. , 1998), it is probably fair to say that he followed in the footsteps of Nauta to continue the caudal expansion of the limbic system by including many additional brainstem structures (except the classic sensory and motor systems) known to be of importance to integrated adaptive responses. From a clinical perspective, this made perfect sense (see Clinical Box 2).

MacLean (1990), for instance, included the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (Figs. 1B and C) in his concept of septum (p. 288). The confusion surrounding this structure becomes even more understandable when one considers the writings of Heath (1954), who, in his studies of psychiatric patients, described a “septal region” close to the midline and extending from the rostral tip of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle to the level of the anterior commissure (roughly 2 cm in the rostrocaudal dimension).

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