By Federico L. Agnolín, Fernando E. Novas (auth.)
Although consensus exists between researchers that birds advanced from coelurosaurian theropods, paleontologists nonetheless debate the identity of the gang of coelurosaurians that the majority heavily techniques the typical ancestor of birds. The final two decades witnessed the invention of a wide range of avian-like theropods that has significantly amplified the anatomical disparity between deinonychosaurians, a few of which resemble Archaeopteryx greater than Deinonychus. between those newly stumbled on theropods that exhibit awesome bird-like features are the four-winged theropods Microraptor and Anchiornis, and the unenlagiids Unenlagia, Buitreraptor, and Rahonavis. A extraordinary crew of minute-sized coelurosaurs, the Scansoriopterygidae, additionally indicates a few avian similarities that lead a few authors to interpret them as extra heavily with regards to birds than different dinosaurs. With the purpose to discover the phylogenetic relationships of those coelurosaurians and birds, we merged lately released integrative databases, leading to major adjustments within the topological distribution of taxa inside Paraves. We current facts that Dromaeosauridae, Microraptoria, Unenlagiidae, and Anchiornis + Xiaotingia shape successive sister taxa of Aves, and that the Scansoriopterygidae are basal coelurosaurians no longer heavily with regards to birds. the results within the evolutionary series of anatomical characters resulting in birds, together with the starting place of flight, also are thought of in gentle of this new phylogenetic hypothesis.
Read Online or Download Avian Ancestors: A Review of the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Theropods Unenlagiidae, Microraptoria, Anchiornis and Scansoriopterygidae PDF
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Extra info for Avian Ancestors: A Review of the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Theropods Unenlagiidae, Microraptoria, Anchiornis and Scansoriopterygidae
2009) as a Microraptoria, on the basis of three shared features with members of that clade: laterally sculpted maxilla, shortened manual phalanx III-2, and spatulate pubic symphysis. A sculpted maxilla may constitute a synapomorphy uniting Tianyuraptor and Microraptoria, but the remaining features deserve the following comments: the shortened proportions of phalanx III-2 is a condition seen in a wide array of basal avians, including Archaeopteryx, Jeholornis, Confuciusornis, and Anchiornis (Campbell 2008; Zhou and Zhang 2002; Chiappe et al.
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2007). Not to scale et al. 2011). In this way, we reinterpret the antorbital fossa and maxillary fenestra of Turner et al. 1). Shanag was referred to Dromaeosauridae by Turner et al. (2007b) on the basis of large maxillary and dentary teeth, a straight, parallel-sided dentary, and a dorsally displaced maxillary fenestra recessed in a caudodorsally directed depression. g. Archaepteryx; Mayr et al. 2007), troodontids (Sues and Averianov 2008), and microraptorans (Xu 2002), and the morphology of the dentary is clearly more widespread among theropods than previously thought, being widely distributed among basal birds (Zhou et al.