By D. Wendt, S. A. Riboldi, M. Cioffi, I. Martin (auth.), Dr. Cornelia Kasper, Prof. Martijn van Griensven, Dr. Ralf Pörtner (eds.)
The editors of this specified quantity could first prefer to thank all authors for his or her first-class contributions. we might additionally prefer to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Scheper, Dr. Marion Hertel and Ulrike Kreusel for delivering the chance to compose this quantity and Springer for organizational and technical help. Tissue engineering represents one of many significant rising fields in sleek b- expertise; it combines diverse topics starting from organic and fabric sciences to engineering and scientific disciplines. the purpose of tissue engineering is the advance of healing methods to alternative diseased organs or tissues or increase their functionality. hence, 3 dimensional biocompatible fabrics are seeded with cells and cultivated in compatible platforms to generate sensible tissues. many various elements play a task within the formation of 3D tissue constructions. within the first position the resource of the used cells is of the maximum significance. to avoid tissue rejection or immune reaction, preferentially autologous cells at the moment are used. specifically, stem cells from assorted assets are gaining extraordinary value as they are often differentiated into diversified tissues by utilizing unique media and vitamins. within the box of biomaterials, a variety of scaffold fabrics exist already yet new composites also are being built in accordance with polymeric, ordinary or xenogenic assets. furthermore, a vital factor in tissue en- neering is the formation of tissues below good outlined, managed and reprod- ible stipulations. hence, a considerable variety of new bioreactors were developed.
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Additional info for Bioreactor Systems for Tissue Engineering
None of the presently employed technologies yields a perfect match to natural heart muscle. So far only engineered myocardial patches in animals-mostly ratsexist. The suitability of engineered heart tissue (EHT) depends on the degree of syncytoid tissue formation and cardiac myocyte differentiation in vitro, contractile function and electrophysiological properties. State of the art is still the Zimmermann and Eschenhagen  developed technology. The cardiac myocytes from neonatal rats were mixed with collagen I scaffold, cast in circular moulds, and subjected to phasic mechanical stretch, which leads to intensively interconnected, longitudinally oriented, cardiac muscle bundles.
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3. Indirect sensing is performed directly on the culture media, but via sampling means. , blood-gas analyzers). In the latter, the measurement is directly carried out within the fluid, driven through a sensorized shunting loop and later either returned to the body of the bioreactor or discarded. Since probes do not need to be placed inside the culture chamber, indirect sensing can be performed by means of advanced, accurate instruments, with clear advantages in terms of specificity and sensitivity with respect to the invasive method.