By Johanna Söderström, Linda Pilcher, Mats Galbe, Guido Zacchi (auth.), Mark Finkelstein, James D. McMillan, Brian H. Davison (eds.)
In Biotechnology for Fuels and chemical compounds: The Twenty-Third Symposium, best US and foreign researchers from academia, undefined, and executive current cutting-edge study on how biotechnology is getting used to supply economically aggressive fuels and chemical compounds. The articles diversity from a dialogue of advances in biomass creation and processing, to commercialization of bio-based items. extra issues contain enzyme and microbial biocatalysts, bioprocessing learn and improvement, the professionals and cons of combining oil and ethanol, and rising biorefinery possibilities. the sphere keeps to extend, and the information and methods defined will play very important roles in constructing new organic strategies for generating fuels and chemical substances on a wide scale, and for decreasing toxins and waste disposal difficulties, and their adversarial affects on international weather switch. state-of-the-art and authoritative, Biotechnology for Fuels and chemical compounds: The Twenty-Third Symposium offers a very good review of present study and improvement within the creation of commodity fuels and chemical compounds through organic transformation.
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Additional info for Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: The Twenty–Third Symposium
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Each sample was measured three times. All the fluorescence data were normalized as shown in Eq. 3: · ddt N orma1lze aa= Intensity - Intensity of baseline Maximum Intensity - Intensity of baseline ----~---~------ (3) DRIFT Spectroscopy Method A Perkin Elmer System 2000 FT-IR with the DRIFT accessory was used for DRIFT analysis of rice straw. The samples were analyzed using the method described previously by Ferraz et al. (6). Reflectance spectra were transformed to Kubelka-Munk (KM) units to minimize scattering contributions to the absorption measured (13).
Because of the automatic control of the LED light source, precise and reproducible step functions of actinic intensity were generated. The actinic intensity was monitored by a light meter (IL1700; International Light) and recorded by a computer simultaneously with the rates of CO2 fixation. Any systematic error of the dual reactor flow detection system was minimized by interchanging two algal samples between the two reactors for each replication of assays. Chl concentration was determined spectrophotometrically with methanol extracts.