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By Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff

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3 There has been emphasis on the treatment abandoned hazardous waste dumps, preventing the illegal dumping of wastes, and regulating industrial discharges and dumping. But there has been a lack of strategies to deal with both the toxicity and volume of industrial waste at the source. Valentino and Walmet4 discuss this process problem and discuss strategies to deal with it. They list as five most common strategies from generally least costly to most costly: Reduction in the overall amount of waste that is produced.

Leaching of landfills is much less of a problem in arid regions than it is in the rainy areas. Solar evaporation may be an effective waste-concentration option in New Mexico but not in New York. Similarly, certain industries that are regional in nature have specialized waste treatment problems. For example, the petrochemical industry is concentrated on the Gulf Coast. Mining and ore refining tend to occur in only a few major locations. Steel has historically been heavily concentrated in Pennsylvania and Ohio.

The methanol added is a carbon source but should not be added in excess, if left in the effluent, the methanol will exert a BOD,. Because the nitrogen gas formed in the denitrification reaction hinders the settling of the mixed liquors, a nitrogen-gas stripping reactor precedes the denitrification clarifier. Removal of residual methanol induced BOD, is an added benefit of the stripping tank. Attached Growth Systems Denitrification in attached growth systems, are accomplished by a variety of column configurations.

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