By Prof. Dr. Germán Spangenberg, Dr. Zeng-Yu Wang, Prof. Dr. Ingo Potrykus (auth.)
This publication exhibits the numerous development made in developing the methodological foundation for the genetic manipulation of forage and turf grasses, with specific emphasis on our most vital temperate grasses, the fescues and ryegrasses. It offers particular and fantastically illustrated descriptions of all suitable methodological facets of molecular breeding of forage and turf grasses. the subjects lined variety from the institution of plant regeneration structures from in vitro cultures, the restoration of haploids and somaclonal editions, the combo of entire or partial genomes by way of somatic hybridization, and the creation of transgenic vegetation, to the improvement of molecular markers.
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Extra resources for Biotechnology in Forage and Turf Grass Improvement
Dicamba and picloram were more effective than 2,4-D in inducing callus in tall fescue. Production of callus from leaf tips was highly variable, and the frequency of callus induction decreased from 86 to 0% as the leaf length increased from 9 to 29mm in Italian ryegrass. However, callus induction was 88% or above if the node was included in the explant regardless of the initial leaf length. Generally, higher auxin concentrations were required for maximum callus growth of leaf-tip explants than for that of embryo explants (Conger et al.
Reed and Conger (1985) reported results from comparative meiotic analyses of tall fescue plants regenerated from seeds and callus cultures, particularly from those cultures in which the mature embryos used for callus induction had been treated with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) as chemical mutagen. While Somaclonal Variation in Festuca and Lalium 35 no chromosomal abonormalities were found in pollen mother cells of the seedderived control plants, between 40 and 50% of the tall fescue callus culture regenerants exhibited chromosomal abnormalities such as lagging chromosomes, formation of micronuclei and anaphase bridges, as well as aneuploidy.
Frequencies of albino regenerants varied between 2 and 18% depending on the genotype, and the increase in culture temperature was found to increase the frequency of albino plant regeneration from callus cultures of one Italian ryegrass genotype (Jackson and Dale 1988). Cytological variation was also observed in this study, and while all regenerants from callus cultures initiated from a diploid genotype had the normal 2n = 14 chromosome count, plants regenerated from callus derived from tetraploid cultures had lost up to three chromosomes.