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The parallel bsheet have evenly spaced hydrogen bonds. b-Strands can also combined into mixed b-sheets, with some b-strand pairs parallel and some antiparallel. Loop Regions. Most protein structures are built up from combinations of secondary structure elements, a-helices and b-sheets, which are connected by loop regions of various lengths and irregular shapes. Normally, the loop regions are at the surface of the molecule. Loop regions frequently participate in forming binding sites (in antibodies) and enzyme-active sites.

The free-energy change is related to enthalpy and entropy by DG ¼ DH À T DS ð3:1Þ If DS > 0, then the system is less ordered, and if DS< 0, then the system is more ordered. If protein denaturation occurs spontaneously at high Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Enzyme: Structure and Functions 53 temperature (>60jC), where T DS dominates, then the right-hand side of the equation is negative. For an equilibrium reaction of the form AþBWCþD DG ¼ ÀRT loge Keq ð3:2Þ The equilibrium constant Keq = ([Ceq][Deq])/([Aeq][Beq]).

This may be understood in two ways: A substrate molecule and the specific reaction it must undergo must be translated into another structure of higher order whose information content perfectly matches the specifically planned chemical transformation. Only large macromolecules can carry enough molecular information, for substrate recognition. Coming to the catalytic activity, the active site or the center must be of a defined or highly ordered geometry if it is to contain all the binding and catalytic groups in correct alignment for optimal catalysis.

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