By W. Crozier
The blush is a ubiquitous, yet little understood, phenomenon. It consists of an involuntary swap within the face which can convey emotions, show personality and reason extreme anxiousness. Crozier offers a scholarly, but obtainable, synthesis of recent study, finding blushing in the context of the 'social feelings' of embarrassment, disgrace and shyness.
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Extra info for Blushing and the Social Emotions: The Self Unmasked
However, an alternative approach regards these states as members of a family of self-conscious emotions, which, as the term suggests, also have self-focused attention and self-consciousness at their core. The self-conscious emotions Writers on emotion have consistently grouped together shame, guilt and pride in terms of the central role that self-appraisal plays in each. The set of emotions is variously labelled social emotions, moral emotions, attachment emotions, emotions of self-approval and self-disapproval, self-conscious emotions, self-reflexive emotions, self-sentiments and emotions of self-assessment.
It is evident that the perspective that is being taken on the failure to live up to standards is that of the ashamed person himself. , p. , to self-reflect; I), and to put it all together to generate a self-evaluation. , p. 108), they extend this definition beyond self-representations to include the internalisation of ‘an external, societal, or parental perspective on those self-representations; and reflect on the discrepancy between his or her own behavior, external evaluations of that behavior, and various Self-consciousness and Emotion 33 self-representations’.
One considers shame to be the fundamental emotion, with embarrassment and shyness as variants. Tomkins identified shame, shyness and guilt as a single affect, namely shame-humiliation. Helen Block Lewis (1971) and Scheff and Retzinger (2001) regard shame as the ‘master emotion’ and treat embarrassment and shyness as variants (see Chapter 7). The second approach differentiates the self-conscious emotions in terms of the pattern of attributions that is made. Michael Lewis (1992; 2000) set out an influential ‘cognitive attribution’ model that makes claims about their development in the life of the child.