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By M. Rostovtzeff

CARAVAN towns by means of M. ROSTOVTZEFF. initially released in 1932. PREFACE: THIS publication is basically the end result of a sequence of commute sketches written in 1928 whereas the impressions of my trip to Syria, Arabia, and Palestine within the early a part of that yr have been nonetheless clean in my brain. those sketches first seemed in Russian newspapers pub lished at Berlin and at Paris, The Helm and Resurrection, and so they have been reprinted later within the Russian journal modern Notes ( Paris), this time with definite altera tions and with the addition of numerous new sketches. ultimately, they seemed in ebook shape at Paris in 1931 less than the identify Blijnem Vostoke. Then the Clarendon Press provided to provide an English variation, yet as i used to be near to project one other and extra bold trip to the close to East, i made a decision to submit pone revision for the English version until eventually my go back. It was once my goal to revisit the websites which shape the topics of my sketches and likewise to incorporate reduce Mesopotamia, the trendy Iraq, in my travels. the hot and bright impressions with which I re grew to become from this trip, and the chance that it gave me of reading the ruins intimately and of ap preciating the large increase made through archaeology within the examine of those websites, led me to shape such a lot of clean conclusions that i've got came upon myself obliged now not in basic terms to revise my textual content, yet even partly to rewrite it. In doing so, i've got passed over the final sketches of the Russian quantity, in view that they handled Rhodes, Cyprus, and Mycenaean Greece and never with caravan towns. while on those travels i used to be in a position to acquire the fabric with which this ebook is illustrated. ... the honor of caravan exchange generally increases innumerable difficulties, of economics, of geo graphy, of weather, and of heritage, that have by no means been totally handled, and which no pupil has ever tried to check during this connexion. for this reason, the part that i've got dedicated to the historical past of caravan alternate within the close to East is not any greater than a cartoon; the description of a bigger paintings which a few one else will fill in sooner or later. The sections which take care of the caravan towns are both imperfect. My selection of those towns is acci dental. it's not in keeping with the ancient value of cities involved yet at the volume of data to be had; or, to be extra distinct, at the kingdom of pre servation of the ruins. it truly is visible that during Syria, for instance, this sort of city as Damascus has a much longer and much extra instructive heritage as a caravan urban than Palmyra, whereas in Transjordania Amman is greater and extra vital than Jerash. In northern Syria, back, the historical past of Aleppo throughout the centuries will be extra instructive than that of Dura. yet so little of the historical past of those very important cities has survived and the little that has survived is of so fragmentary a nature, that the image we will type of them is inevitably Incomplete.

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The Arabian desert became a province of Egypt did the first and his son all First Antigonus the One-Eyed Demetrius attempted to get a firm foothold in northern Arabia by taking possession of Petra. Then importance. III. THE MEN AND CAMELS OF SOUTH ARABIA (for description see p. 36) Caravan Trade. An Historical Survey 25 the Seleucids, kings of Syria, and the Ptolemies, rulers of Egypt, both continued to hanker after exclusive con- Arabian caravan routes. Neither Alexander nor his followers could conquer Arabia, and even to-day neither the English nor the trol of the French, in spite of their aeroplanes and armoured cars, are able to subdue it.

It is evident, for example, Thothmes III, who speaks with such pleasure of the Assyrian tribute of Persian lapis lazuli and its Babylonian equivalent, considered the cultured world of the period as a single, complex organism, bound together by commercial ties. At the beginning of the first millennium closely the Sumero- Hittite Babylonian, the Egyptian, and the short-lived that of empires were succeeded by a single empire, of revival a short Babylonia, Assyria, and Assyria, after was superseded in its turn by the mighty empire of Persia.

In these early days the land-routes were much more used than the sea. The sea was as yet neither favoured and was used only when absolutely necessary. Transport by camels across the desert was reckoned a far safer and more trustworthy method of conveyance than that by ship, and It was mostly by means of caravans that the products of India, of Arabia, and even those of central Africa were disnor trusted patched from Arabia to Babylonia, to Syria, to Egypt, or even much farther to north and to west.

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